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The birth of the first big scientific device in China

“I believe this matter will not be wrong!” On October 7, 1984, at the western suburbs of Beijing, at the foundation of Beijing positive and negative electronic collision machine held in the Institute of High Energy Physics (hereinafter referred to as high energy institutes) in the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Comrade Deng Xiaoping, Comrade Deng XiaopingIf so.

On this day, Comrade Deng Xiaoping trained the first soil on the foundation stone of the collision.Zhang Wenyu, then the director of Gao Energy, pulled his hand and said excitedly, “My long -term wish finally realized today!”

Today, 40 years later, recalling the foundation ceremony, the eyes of Zhang Chuang, a researcher at High Energy Institute, were a little moist: “On that day, many people waited for a lifetime.”

Since the 1950s, Chinese scientists have been suffering from my country’s high -energy physical accelerator, and scientific research has long relied on foreign data for a long time.They always have a dream -to use their own accelerator to do the most cutting -edge research in the world.In the turbulence, this dream was ignited seven times, and seven times went out.The foundation means that their dreams finally come true.

In just 4 years, Chinese scientists have built my country’s first large scientific device -Beijing positive and negative electronics collision at a speed that surprised international colleagues.In the following 40 years, the scientific achievements of continuous output, the growing talent team, and the high -energy physics of the Chinese high -energy physics have confirmed the words of Comrade Deng Xiaoping.

1 Seven “up” seven “down”

In March 1975, it was warm and cold, and the breath of spring was not strong.

Zhang Chuang, who was working at the North Ticket Mining Bureau of Liaoning Province, came to Zhongguancun while he was in the gap of a meeting on a business trip in Beijing to visit Zhang Li, a university teacher and a professor at Tsinghua University.Zhang Chuang once studied the particle accelerator in the Department of Engineering Physics of Tsinghua University. After graduation, he was assigned to the coal mine to work, but he has been closely related to his teacher.

Knocking the door and sitting in the house, the two had not had a few words, and Zhang Li told Zhang Chuang a message excitedly: “Premier Zhou has instructions, high energy physics is going!”

Zhang Li’s voice was not loud, but Zhang Chuang shocked one of them.It was like a key, opening a long -closed door in Zhang Chuang’s heart.

Things start from 3 years ago.

On August 18, 1972, 18 scientists such as Zhang Wenyu, Zhu Hongyuan, Xie Jialin, etc. wrote a letter to Premier Zhou.In the letter, they complained: “High -energy physical experiments are almost blank, while high -energy physical theoretical research rely on foreign experimental data.”

High -energy physics research is the most cutting -edge discipline to understand the micro -structure of material and its movement, and high -energy accelerators and corresponding detection devices are important tools for this cutting -edge research.

As early as the founding of New China, in October 1950, physicists from the Chinese Academy of Sciences proposed to build particles accelerators and conduct research on nuclear physics experiments.In 1953, the world’s first high -energy accelerator came out in the United States. Zhao Zhongyao, Zhang Wenyu, Wang Yichang and other older Chinese physicists began to work hard to promote the construction of a high -energy accelerator in China.However, the changes of political storms and the rise and fall of the national economy have made this dream many times and “getting off the horse” many times.

In the letter, they called for: “Determine the development of high -energy physics as soon as possible, and at the same time organize the organization to ensure that the high -energy physics research institute is set up as soon as possible, and the leaders of the competent department of basic theoretical research.”

On September 11, 1972, Premier Zhou Enlai instructed: “This incident cannot be delayed. The Academy of Sciences must catch basic science and theoretical research, and at the same time combine theoretical research with scientific experiments.”

On February 1, 1973, under the concern of the party and state leaders, the Chinese Academy of Sciences established a high -energy institute.In Zhang Chuang’s heart, it was once an unmatched “Hall”.

Two years later, in March 1975, after in -depth research, the scientists organized by High Energy reported to the State Council to report the “Report on the Research and Construction of High Energy Accelerator Prefabricated Research and Construction”.Proton synchronous accelerator.

In the hospital bed, Premier Zhou reviewed and approved the report.Since then, the prefabricated research project of the high energy accelerator has its own code -“Seven Five -Year Project”.

“The school has recommended the students who have graduated from the accelerator to the high energy institute, and you are also in the list.” Zhang Li told Zhang Chuang.In order to meet the needs of the “Seven Five -Year Project”, High Energy began to convene relevant professionals scattered across the country.

On that day, when Zhang Chuang came out of the teacher’s house, the fatigue of the business trip swept away.At this time, the salamanders on the roadside were still a little bare, but Zhang Chuang’s heart had already opened a small flower, which was the dream he and the teachers looking forward to it for a long time.

In the autumn of 1976, scientists were full of confidence, re -demonstrated the “Seven Five -Year Project” plan, proposed a more magnificent “August 7th Project” plan, and was approved by the country.

The “87th Project” takes three steps: the first step, cost 300 million yuan to build a slow pulse prototype accelerator of 30 billion electronic volts; the second step, cost 700 million yuan, and build a 40 billion electronic volts at the end of 1987 to build a 40 billion electronic volts.Circle accelerator; third step, by the end of the 20th century, a world -class high -energy accelerator was built.

However, it didn’t take long for my country’s national economic adjustment and tightening infrastructure. High -energy proton accelerators were listed in “dismissed” because it was “national non -urgent need” -this is the seventh “dismissal” of the project.After learning the news, Zhang Wenyu and other older scientists and Zhang Chuang and other younger generation were anxious.

In May 1980, 39 high -energy physicists including Zhang Wenyu, Zhao Zhongyao, Zhu Hongyuan, and other 39 high -energy physicists jointly wrote that the “87th Project” should not “get off the horse”.Comrade Deng Xiaoping instructed: “The impact of this incident is too much, and it is not appropriate to” get off the horse “.”

This batch left the opportunity to Chinese scientists.Despite the stagnation of the project, the hope is still there.

Everyone began to rethink the accelerator solution that is more in line with the national conditions and ran to the eighth hope.

2 Eighth Hope

The “87th Project” was lagging, and high -energy physicists studied the problem adjustment of the plan together.

In 1981, affected by the stagnation of the “August 7th Project”, the Sino -US High -Energy Physics Joint Conference failed to be held as scheduled.After learning the news, Chinese physicists Yuan Jiazheng, Wu Jianxiong and Li Zhengdao were all anxious. They suggested to the country leaders and immediately sent experts to the United States to negotiate.

In March 1981, Zhu Hongyuan and Xie Jialin from the Chinese Academy of Sciences sent Gaoneng Institute to the United States to negotiate.They met with Li Zhengdao, Yuan Jiazhang, Wu Jianxiong, and Director of the Stanford Straight Accelerator Center in the United States.In the end, everyone agreed that the construction of 2 × 2.2 billion electron volt -bustling electronic collision in China was the best solution.

In the new plan, the cost is only one -third of the “August 7th Project”. Not only is the physical windows rich in content, it can also do synchronous radiation application research while doing high -energy physical research to achieve “one machine, two uses”.

However, when Zhu Hongyuan and Xie Jialin brought this plan back to China, a fierce debate began.

The technical difficulty and risk are developed.The positive and negative electronic collision machine must make the two beams of extremely thin, high -speed operation, and thin electronic beam groups hit together.Everyone has a variety of concerns: “Can China do it?” “Even if it is developed, is the performance indicators reaching the standard?” “If the progress is dragged down, what should I do if the physical window is closed?”

Some people also played an analogy: “Based on the weak foundation of China at that time, if you want to build a positive and negative electronic collision machine, it is like standing on the railway platform and wanting to jump on a railway.Go forward, if you don’t catch it, you will break your bones. “

In September 1981, the Ministry of Cantonese of the Chinese Academy of Sciences hosted the “Fengtai Conference” to discuss it for 3 days.At the same time, many seminars have been organized within the High Energy Institute.Everyone is seeking the most actual way out for the future of the country’s high -energy physics.

The plan has been discussed until the end of 1981.In the meantime, the Chinese Academy of Sciences also sent Deng Zhaoming and Xie Jialin and Zhu Hongyuan to the United States together.Under the insistence of Li Zhengdao and others, Deng Zhaoming and the leaders of the Chinese Academy of Sciences called. After nearly an hour of negotiation, the institute leaders affirmed the plan for positive and negative electronic collision.

On December 5, 1981, the Chinese Academy of Sciences reported the “Report on the Construction of the Study on the prefabricated prefabrication of Beijing positive and negative electronics collision”.After reading the report, Comrade Deng Xiaoping instructed: “This project has reached this extent, and it is not suitable for interruption. They are more practical and feasible. I agree with approval and no longer hesitate.”

In April 1983, my country officially approved the Beijing positive and negative electronic collision project, which was planned to be completed at the end of 1988.

Since then, Gu Yu, who has served as the leader of the leading group of Beijing’s positive and negative electronic collision engineering engineering: “This batch injects vitality and vitality into the high -energy physics industry shown in China, liberating China’s high -energy accelerator from the crisis.”

3 Jump on the “Express Train”

At 10 am on October 7, 1984, the color flag fluttered in the high energy center of Yuquan Road on the western suburbs of Beijing.Deng Xiaoping, Yang Shangkun, Wanli, Fang Yi and other party and state leaders, as well as scientists who made a special trip from the United States.The long -awaited Beijing positive and negative electronic collision is finally broken.

Next, scientists need to “jump” from the platform to “jump” from the platform for 4 years or even shorter times.

Beijing positive and negative electronic collision machine consists of an injector, transport line, storage ring, Beijing spectrometer, synchronous radiation device and other parts. There are tens of thousands of special equipment involved in the project.Never done it.The project encountered a key problem at the beginning: is it comprehensive introduction or independent development?

As the leader of the engineering leadership group, Gu Yu led the members of the group to carefully analyze China’s science and technology and industrial status, and finally decided that except for computers and a few equipment that China was unable to develop at that time, the equipment and equipment that was not worthy of human and material resources, it was not worthy of human and material resources.Outside of components and materials, it mainly depends on its own strength design and development.

In order to provide an extreme particle collision environment, the technical indicators of various types of equipment in Beijing’s positive and negative electronic collision machines approach the limit.The indicators almost exceed the technical capabilities at the time.

For example, to accelerate electrons, a stable microwave electromagnetic field is needed, and a part called “S -band high -power speed tube” is the “heart” of the microwave magnetic field electronic system.At that time, the high -power speed tube of the S -band with the highest level of technology in China, the pulse output power could reach 15 to 20 MW, but this could not meet the needs of the collision engine.

As a result, the scientific researchers and factories of the High Energy Institute joined forces to absorb all the production processes of the early 1980s and transform the original production line.The MW has been raised to 100 to 200 MW, and the working life has increased from 1,000 hours to 100,000 hours.

This breakthrough not only meets the technical requirements of high -power, high stability, and long life of the collision of the collision, but also allows Hefei to synchronize radiation sources, Beijing free electronic laser, Shanghai free electronic laser, etc.Several accelerator projects have gradually used domestic microwave power sources and special waveguide components.

There are many similar technical breakthroughs in the development of the collision machine.In order to build a collision machine, my country has reached a higher technical level in the aspects of vacuum technology, electromagnet, high -power high stability power supply.In addition, the Gao Energy Institute also established my country’s first international computer communication line in 1987, becoming a pioneer in my country’s construction of the “International Information Highway”.

During the construction of Beijing’s positive and negative electronics collision machine, scientific researchers installed the main drift room signal silk on the Beijing spectrometer.

One day in October 1988, Ye Minghan, then director of Gao Energy Institute, found Zheng Zhipeng, who was responsible for the construction, installation, and commissioning of the Beijing spectrometer.

“Recently, it is about to start China -US high -energy talks. American experts are in Beijing. If you can achieve positive and negative electronic collisions at this time, it will be a very appropriate time.” Ye Minghan said.

Zheng Zhipeng immediately found colleagues responsible for the brightness detector to discuss how to distinguish between signals and noise.After several continuous debugging, they slowly figured out the “temper” of the device.

In the early morning of October 6, 1988, when Beijing’s positive and negative electron collision was in the collision mode, the brightness monitor displayed the scattering signal of positive and negative electrons, and the counting continued to increase;After the signal is adjusted to a single beam mode, the signal disappears.Repeated times, finally, everyone confirmed that “the collision.”

In the hall, everyone was happy to jump, and the exhaustion overnight disappeared.When he learned the news, Ye Minghan came to the running room and the hall to confirm the fact that the positive and negative electron was achieved.

Good news spread all over the entire high -energy institute and spread throughout the country through the media.

Beijing positive and negative electronic collision in the control room.

On October 24, 1988, a autumn rain just passed made Beijing comfortable and pleasant, and Comrade Deng Xiaoping came to the high energy institute again.On this day, Beijing positive and negative electronic collision announced the successful construction!

“Whether it is past or today, or in the future, China must develop its own high -tech and occupy a place in the world’s high -tech field.” Comrade Deng Xiaoping said at the built -in ceremony.

In 1988, Beijing’s positive and negative electronics collision was completed. Zhang Wenyu and engineering manager Xie Jialin (second from right), deputy manager Chen Senyu (first from the right), and chief craftsman Xu Shaowang (first from left) communicated in the storage ring tunnel.

For 4 years, Chinese scientists really “jumped” on the international high -energy physics trains.

“The success of the collision is an important milestone in the development of Chinese science and technology.” Rickt, the winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics.

Since then, the era of the major scientific plan of China has officially opened.

Beijing positive and negative electronic collision engine installation is completed.

4 “The two armies meet the courageous victory”

In 1990, after more than a year of debugging, Beijing positive and negative electronics collision was officially operated.

It soon became the “treasure land” of China’s high -energy physical basic research.With its data produced, Chinese scientists have achieved a group of important research results that have influence in the international high -energy physics community: the most accurate measurement of the quality of light -light submissites so far;The precise measurement of the collision strong sub-section (R value); the new resonance state of the “proton-anti-proton” quality threshold; found new particles X (1835) …

The Beijing spectrometer is installed.

At the turn of the century, the international high -energy physical competition has become more and more intense, and the Beijing positive and negative electronics collision has been running for 10 years.Chinese scientists have a new idea: upgrade!

Chen Hesheng, then the director of the high energy institute, has always paid close attention to the development of the international high -energy physical frontier.In 2000, the “China High -Energy Physics and Advanced Accelerator Development Objectives”, which he presided over the formulation of the National Science and Technology Leading Group, consent, including the major transformation of Beijing positive and negative electronics collision machines.

Knowing this, Cornell’s Cornell’s Positive Electronics Campaign Team in the United States felt threatened.They claim that the “short -level” method will be transformed by the “short flat” method. Cornell’s positive electronic collision machine is expected to reach the same performance index two years earlier than the transformed Beijing positive and negative electronic collision machine.

This is tantamount to “declare war”.”The two armies met the brave!” Chen Hesheng told the researchers around him.After repeated discussions with experts in international experts, he found that the plan of Cornell University may not be realized, and Chinese design plans can be made as long as they work hard.

Everyone decided to meet the difficulties and major adjustments to the Beijing positive and negative electronic collision reconstruction (BEPCII) solution. It adopts an internationally advanced dual -ring solution. It plans to increase the performance of Beijing positive and negative electronic collision 100 times in order to compete in international competition in international competitionGet the initiative.

In January 2004, BEPCII officially started construction. The construction content included the transformation of the injection, the construction of a dual storage ring collision machine, the new Beijing spectrometer III, and the reconstruction of general facilities.

A fierce international competition began.

In addition to the high energy institute, the University of Science and Technology of China, the Institute of Physical and Chemical Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Hefei Material Science Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institute of Siliconate of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the relevant institutes of surgery research institutions and enterprisesParticipate in it to form an institutionalization force.

In 5 years, they improved the brightness and comprehensive performance of Beijing’s positive and negative electronic collision to the world’s leading level, and the project independent development equipment exceeded 85%.

The upgraded Beijing positive and negative electronics collision achieved a precise collision of micron -level high -flow strong bundles. The peak brightness is about 100 times before the transformation. In addition, the performance and operating efficiency of the detector are improved.More than times.

At more than 5 am on November 18, 2006, after a major transformation of the Beijing positive and negative electron collision, the accumulation of electronic beams in the storage ring was successfully achieved. Scientific researchers recorded this moment in the control room.The picture of this article is confessed by the respondents

By the completion of the BEPCII project in 2009, Cornell University’s collision machine only reached a quarter of its design indicators and had to be stopped.Many high -energy physicists who did experiments on the collision machine joined the Beijing spectrometer III cooperation group.

“This is another major leap in China’s high -energy physical experimental research. It has laid a solid foundation for China to continue its international leading position in the international leading position in the research on physics research and τ τ τ high -energy research.” Li Zhengdao commented on.

Higher performance brings richer scientific research results.In March 2013, the Beijing spectrometer III cooperation group announced the discovery of a new resonance structure ZC (3900), which is likely to be the “four quarks” that scientists have long been searched for a long time.An important achievement, topped the list.Since the operation of 2008 until the end of June 2015, they have also observed new particles X (1870), X (2120), X (2370), etc.

During the scientific research process, young high -energy physics researchers also grew up. A group of outstanding doctoral and post -doctoral sources were continuously transported to major scientific research institutions and universities across the country, becoming fresh blood for high -energy physical development in China.

Wang Yifang, the current director of Gao Energy, said with emotion: “It seems that the construction of a positive and negative electronic collision machine at the time was the best choice at the time.The level team has also promoted the construction of other large scientific devices in China. “

Today, the transformation of Beijing positive and negative electronics crash is still ongoing.”We are transforming the accelerator part, which increases its brightness by three times. After that, Beijing’s positive and negative electronic collision is expected to run around 2030.” Wang Yifang said.

In the eyes of many people who came, the construction of the Beijing positive and negative electronic collision machine was the result of the continuation of several generations of technology workers. It was the achievements of many units in the country. It also benefited from international cooperation after reform and opening up.

In Wang Yifang’s view, the “revelation” left by the Beijing positive and negative electronic collision, including “the development of high -energy physical development must comprehensively consider cutting -edge scientific goals, national strength and needs, and subject development goals to choose the installation construction plan.”Accepting international challenges and competition “,” domestic experimental bases have always been a solid foundation for consolidating and developing international status “,” the installation construction plan should take into account the needs of other disciplines as much as possible “,” adhere to the combination of independent innovation and international cooperation with international cooperation”…

Looking back at the past, China’s high -energy physics started hard and twists and turns, but scientists never lost hope and passion.The frustration and glory of the past have achieved the courage and temperament of Chinese high -energy physicists.They also accumulated an extremely valuable experience for the posterity -insisted on the tranquility and forge ahead in hope.

(Intern Wu Yuxuan also contributed to this article)

(Originally on the 4th edition of “China Science News” 2024-03-25)

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